In aviation, pressure switches and sensors are used in nearly every system aboard the aircraft. They trigger flight controls and instruments, monitor the fuel and engine systems, and are used to keep the cabin comfortable and clean. Even the pilot’s seat is equipped with a pressure sensor that detects if the pilot is sitting in it to ensure that he or she is flying the aircraft.
In modern commercial aircraft, pressure sensors such as the pitot-static system are located outside the aircraft’s cabin and are used to determine altitude, airspeed, and how the aircraft is flying. This information is critical not just for navigation purposes, but safety and economic reasons as well. Flying the aircraft too fast burns fuel too quickly, while flying too slowly will cause the aircraft to stall. Pressure switches are also used in the hydraulic systems that power the control surfaces of the aircraft, moving the ailerons, horizontal/vertical stabilizers, and spoilers to adjust the aircraft’s pitch, yaw, and roll.
Another key area for pressure switches is in the engines. Engines rely on pressure sensors and switches to move fuel through the engine system, and problems arise if the fuel system is over or under-pressurized. Maintaining a proper fuel-air mixture is critical for engine ignition and performance, which is dependent on knowing the proper inlet pressures, and having property safety responses to over or under-pressure.
Most aircraft feature a 14- or 38-volt electrical system that is comprised of various components. This blog will identify the main components of the system and their function.Alternator/Generator
To begin, the alternator or generator supply the electric current to the aircraft electrical system. Alternators also provide an electrical charge to the battery which is used to start up the engine. The battery also stores a limited amount of energy in case the main electrical system fails.Voltage Regulators
As the name suggests, the master switch turns the entire electrical system on and off. It includes all of the electrical components such as lights, fuel gauges, and pumps. There is often an alternative switch to control the battery power. The alternator can also be cut off from the main electrical circuit via a switch.Bus Bar
To help simplify the copious amount of wiring in an aircraft, bus bars are used to connect the main electrical system to the equipment. All the equipment on the common bus bar terminal share the same voltage. In the case of a problem, bus bars help to pinpoint or isolate the problem.Fuses and Circuit Breakers
Both of these devices are used to protect the electrical system from electrical overload. Spare fuses of the proper amperage limit should be carried in the aircraft to replace defective or blown fuses. Circuit breakers have a trip switch that is triggered to stop the electrical circuit from overloading.Ammeter
Ammeters monitor the performance of the electrical system. The ammeter is in the form of a gauge with a zero point in the center. When the pointer is on the positive side, the charging rate of the battery can be read. If the point is on the negative side, the battery is drawing more energy that is being replaced.Ground Power Units
These are a separate unit to the described electrical system. Fixed GPUs provide 400Hz power from a fixed location. Mobile GPUS can deliver power to an aircraft that may be isolated. Both GPUs are used to start the electrical system in cold weather.
The electrical system on an aircraft is comprised of many different components that supply, monitor, and regulate the flow of electricity. Without the electrical system a modern aircraft would be significantly harder, is not impossible, to fly. The correct knowledge and maintenance of the various electrical components is required to ensure that the aircraft remains airworthy.
Heat is produced in an engine primarily through the combustion process— when fuel and air is mixed and burned to produce heat energy that is converted to mechanical energy for rotation or to produce high-pressure exhaust. The material that is used to construct an engine has high heat capabilities, however, excessive heat can cause serious damage or failure to an engine.
Most aircraft powerplants dissipate about half of their produced heat through the exhaust and remaining heat is absorbed by the engine. Excessive heat is undesirable because it changes the process that the combustion chamber utilizes, creates excessive wear on engine components, and impairs lubrication. In order to prevent the detrimental effects of overheating, engines contain cooling systems. They vary in complexity depending on the specific engine and how much heat it produces.
Reciprocating Engine Cooling
Reciprocating engines are either cooled by passing air over the cylinder fins or through liquid coolants. Oil that is circulating through the engine picks up some of the heat and transfers it to the airstream through an oil cooler and the rest of the cooling system handle the remaining excess heat. In order to cool an engine, heat needs to be transferred from the cylinders to the air. Cooling fins are used to do this. If too many of the cooling fins are broken, the cylinders need to be replaced to prevent hotspot development. Cowlings and baffles force air over the fins and the baffles have built in blast tubes to direct cool air on to the rear spark plug elbows of each cylinder. This stream of cool air prevents the ignition leads from overheating.
Because an engine needs to stay within temperature ranges, whether it’s becoming too hot or too cold, it needs to have components that control the heating and cooling properties. This is why cowl flaps are used to control cooling. Cowl flaps are extended to cool the engine. Controllable cowl flaps aren’t necessary when the cowling has openings at the nose. Air may be taken in by the holes to cool the engine.
Turbine Engine Cooling
Turbine engines have a continuous combustion process and produce very high levels of heat. They require a more sophisticated cooling system. A large surplus of air is used to begin cooling off a turbine engine. The turbine blades end up absorbing a lot of heat and are usually the hottest area. Because of their conductivity, they pass heat to the outer skin of the engine. Center tubes are used to direct cool air into the center of the burner to increase combustion efficiency and dilute the hot gases before they enter the turbines. The turbine case, bearings, and turbine nozzle are cooled by cooling-air inlets that are on the exterior of the engine. The fan air is used to cool off the engine and its nacelle.
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Most of us have driven or been in an old car at some point in our lives. Whether it was the hand-me-down car you got from your parents for a 16th birthday, or the menace-to-society that a first date rolls up in, being in an older car with torque problems can be a bit scary.
Torque converters transmit, or multiply, torque generated by an engine. Automatic transmission cars use torque converters because they allow the engine to keep turning while the wheels and gears in a transmission come to a stop. Manual cars achieve this with the clutch. Some cars, buses, trucks, forwarders and other heavy-duty vehicles, and marine propulsion systems use torque converters. There are four components inside a torque converters housing: the pump, turbine, stator, and transmission fluid.
There are a few common scenarios that cause torque converter problems— matching it with a non-stock engine that it wasn't designed for, exceeding its towing capacity for a prolonged period of time, and containing old and worn components. Overloading a converter can cause overheating, stator clutch seizure, stator clutch breakage, blade deformation and fragmentation, and ballooning. Some of the other common causes are damaged needle bearings, damaged torque converter seals, damaged torque converter clutches, or a malfunctioning torque converter clutch solenoid. There are many signs that show up when a converter is causing trouble.
Vanes will bend as a converter begins to wear. A sign of this problem is when the engine begins revving higher than normal but regulates once it heats up. When an engine block begins shaking at the slightest acceleration, otherwise known as a torque shutter, the converter is faulty. Some of the other signs are less power when driving at lower speeds, a whirring sound at startup, increased stall speed, and the “death sound” which is a loud clacking or grinding noise.
Torque converters can be repaired; however, if a converter has sustained heavy damage it can be safer and more cost-effective to have it replaced.
At One Click Purchasing, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the aircraft components you need, new or obsolete. As a premier supplier of parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries, we’re always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7x365. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at firstname.lastname@example.org or call us at 1-412-212-0606.
Elliott Aviation has designed a Prizm brand LED lighting system as well as an electronically dimmable Smart Vision Shades system. Elliot has been granted a Supplemental Type Certification (STC) to use these both systems on aircraft. The lighting and shade systems are currently being manufactured and will be available for use by early 2019 for approved dealers and aircraft manufacturers. The STC installation for both systems was done in a Cessna Citation Excel.
Both the LED lighting and Smart Vision dimmable shade systems can be controlled through the Prizm app. The cabin controller can also control the lighting system. However, the Prizm app includes preset lighting conditions for customers to use and enjoy. The multi-color LED lighting features full-color spectrum mood lighting. It can also be used for upwash, downwash, windows, cup holders, the galley, and more.
The Smart-Vision Shades uses electronic dimmable film on the interior of the plane's windows. It is available in five different colors. Window films have the ability to be controlled individually as well. These films are capable of blocking 99 percent of UV rays.
According to Mark Wilken, the Vice President of the Avionics Programs and Operational Logistics for Elliott Aviation, aircraft repair stations, and refurbishment stations have been looking for a solution that is both well-designed and cost-effective for LED lighting and electronically dimmable window shades. He also states how these systems
"are easy to use, easy to install, and will be available at a price point that is affordable to the end-user."
It's expected that both systems will be very popular with business jets like the Cessna Citations.
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Drones are a very cool new toy, giving us new perspectives and access to the most amazing sights we’d normally not have access to. They're also a very problematic one, quickly raising a lot of concerns about boundaries and privacy leading to a flurry of regulations passed by the FAA. As a result, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM) is now claiming that drones are too heavily restricted by the FAA.
According to statistics, there are now more than 1 million drones in the United States. Commonly seen used for recreational/civilian purposes, drones also find use in the commercial and military industries such as for filming or for delivery strikes in areas where flight is considered too risky or difficult.
Tourism companies use drones to film travel destinations, record videos of resorts and post content on social media. Since drones can be operated for different purposes, the U.S Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has some regulations for them. The FAA requires all commercial drones to remain in the pilot's visual line of sight, and they can only be operated during the day or with proper lighting.
More importantly, the FAA requires pilots of commercial drones to have an airman certificate issued by the FAA. Based on the FAA criteria and regulations, a new report was published by the NASEM questioning the efficiency of the FAA's commercial drone regulations. The report points out that the FAA uses the same approach to regulate commercial drones as it does with commercial airlines, an unnecessary and excessive approach that offers no real safety benefits.
The FAA takes an extremely cautious approach to create safety regulations. But the problem is that drones aren't like commercial airlines; they don't pose the same risk of injury or death. Instead, NASEM suggests that the FAA should be worried about more tangible hazards than commercial drones. The FAA responded saying that it is working to improve its drone regulations, but there's been no word as to what changes, or how or when they'd be implemented.
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“Anti-friction bearings”, otherwise known as rolling contact bearings, are those with low friction between the ball and inner and outer rings and are used for both radial and thrust loading. As a cheaper and easier to maintain bearing, they are very common and have a lot of different applications. Rolling contact bearings are divided into two different categories, ball bearing, and roller bearing, and from there they are further categorized by their features.
Common ball bearings include thrust ball bearings, deep groove bearings, angular contact ball bearings, and self-aligning ball bearings. Thrust ball bearings can only support thrust loads in one direction and no radial loads. Deep groove bearings can support thrust loads in both directors and no radial loads. Angular contact ball bearings can handle radial loads and large thrust loads in one direction. Self-aligning ball bearings are used when the alignment of the shaft and housing are problematic, they can handle only lower axial loads since the angle is small.
Common roller bearings include tapered roller bearings, needle roller bearings, spherical roller bearings, cylindrical roller bearings, and wheel hub bearings. Tapered roller bearings use tapered inner and outer rings in order to support thrust and radial loads. The ratio of thrust and radial loads is dependent on the angle between the roller and bearing axis. Needle roller bearings are usually used when radial space is limited. Spherical rollers are able to handle both axial and radial loads as a result of the angular contact between the rollers and raceways. They can also handle shaft misalignment as a result of the double set of rollers. Cylindrical roller bearings are used for large radial loads. And wheel hub bearings are used for the automotive industry to support the massive radial loads caused by the weight of automobiles.
While roller bearings are cheaper and easier to maintain, it does not mean that they do not need to be serviced and replaced regularly. In fact, because of the many applications of bearings, it’s important to check that all your bearings are still functional and safe to use during routine checks and inspections. If you need replacements, check us out at One Click Purchasing. One click is all takes to get all your bearing needs. Just call us at +1-412-212-0606 or email us at firstname.lastname@example.org to get started.
The role of power protection devices like Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS) have become more important as digitization has a big impact on the layout of global business. Business worksites such as factories, data centers, refineries, and much more, rely on a consistent stream of power to stay operational. Depending on the industry, over millions of dollars can be lost for every hour the system is down. UPS are utilized to avoid any power-outage related problems. They serve as the connector between utility power and generator power.
There are two UPS categories, static and rotary UPS. Static UPS is called “static” because the power path has no moving parts. The rectifier within the static UPS converts the arriving AC current to DC. The inverter then converts DC back to AC to give the load. The DC current combines with the energy storage medium. In common batteries, this charges the batteries and gains power from the batteries when the UPS fails.
The rotary UPS is called “rotary” because due to the rotating components inside the UPS. These components are used to transfer power to the load. Rotary technology has been used for quite some time and gained attention when loads commonly showcased a lower power factor and high harmonics. The low power factor leads to increase loss in the power distribution system which leads to an increase in energy cost. High harmonics shortened the life of both transformers and capacitors prematurely. Users often experienced dimming of lights when large motors were turned on. These characteristics destabilized the electronics of connected loads of the electrical network.
Rotary UPSs are best for environments distinguished by several short inrushes of power. One example would be an environment where multiple motors are turning on and off constantly. An example would be satellite and broadcast stations. Static UPSs provide much wider and broader use. Static UPS has a much more dominant presence than rotary UPSs, the main reason being that of installation cost and efficiency.
One Click Purchasing, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, was developed because of the premise that a “distributor should be a complete and comprehensive purchasing resource.” The website can be used to source for aircraft components, uninterruptible power supplies, and acts as a Schneider Electrics parts distributor, and as a distributor to many aircraft parts manufactures. Customers enjoy the benefits of being ISO 9001-2008 certified and can utilize this resource for their parts needs.
Established in 1936 with headquarters in Phoenix, Arizona, Honeywell Aerospace is a manufacturer of aircraft engines and avionics, in addition to producing auxiliary power products, and other aviation products.
On May 1st, in Phoenix, Honeywell has finished the first transaction of Jet ConneX which is the fast connectivity service aimed toward the business aviation aircraft market segment, in Latin America. Inmarsat’s Ka-band satellite network which powers the service and it also runs on Honeywell’s JetWave hardware was chosen along the Honeywell Avionics Protection Plan and a couple GoDirect services to support flight planning, weather monitoring, future maintenance and more.
A customer in Brazil was the first to acquire Jet ConneX through Honeywell GoDirect in Latin America. The upgraded in-glifht connectivity and GoDirect amenities will be used on the customer’s Dassault Falcon 7X to increase passengers’ cabin experience and provide pilots with forceful services for superior recognition and decision – making.
Honeywell is conducting its perception for the Connected Aircraft to business aviation operators across Latin America. As adoption increases for JetWave and Jet ConneX, contractors in the district are offering passengers and pilots better efficiency, welfare and quality connected experience that travels with them anywhere.
“The collective purchase of Jet ConneX, JetWave and other GoDirect services directly through Honeywell shows a unique benefit created for customers.”
said Jason Wissink, GoDirect worldwide sales director, Honeywell Aerospace.
“They can now rely on Honeywell as the one point of contact in meeting and supporting all their connectivity-related needs.”
One Click Purchasing has a dedicated and expansive array of Honeywell aerospace, commercial and defense aircraft parts - serving customers as a one-stop shop and primary destination for product sourcing. One Click Purchasing, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, will ensure that your needs are addressed in the most expeditious and transparent manner, all the while offering cost-effective component solutions.
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